42 BYZANTINE CHURCHES CHAP.
took from the pile the garment most convenient to his hand. Female animals were forbidden the monastery. A monk was not allowed to kiss his mother, not even at Easter, under penalty of excommunication for fifty days. Daily he attended seven services, and had often to keep vigil all night long. There was only one set meal a day ; anything more in the way of food consisted of the fragments which a monk laid aside from that meal. No meat was eaten unless by special permission' for reasons of health.
If a brother ate meat without permission he went without fish-, eggs, and cheese for forty days. The ordinary food consisted of vegetables cooked in oil Fish, cheese, and eggs were luxuries. Two, sometimes three, cups of wine were permitted. If a brother was so unfortunate as to break a dish, he had to stand before the assembled monks at dinner time with covered head, and hold the broken article in view of all in the refectory.1 It was forbidden to a monk to feel sad. Melancholy was a sin, and was to be overcome by prayer, one hundred and fifty genuflexions, and five hundred Kyrie Eleisons a day. The monks were required to read regularly in the monastery library.2 The task of copying manuscripts occupied a place of honour, and was under strict regulations. Fifty genuflexions were the penalty prescribed for not keeping one's copy clean ; one hundred and fifty such acts of penance for omitting an accent or mark of punctuation ; thirty, for losing one's temper and breaking his pen ; fasting on dry bread was the fate of the copyist guilty of leaving out any part of the original, and three days' seclusion for daring to trust his memory instead of following closely the text before him.8
Ignatius of Smolensk4 found Russian monks in the monastery employed in transcribing books for circulation in Russia. Stephen of Novgorod5 met two old friends from
1 According to Stephen of Novgorod (Itin. rwses, p. 121) the refectory was an unusually fine hall, situated near the sea.
2 At a short distance beyond the north-eastern end of the church are some ruined vaults which the Turks have named KLietab Hane", the library. See Plate III.
3 For the Constitution and Epitamiaof the Studion, see Migne, P,G. tome 99.
4 Itin. russes, p. 136.
6 Ibid, p. 122 *on envoyait beaucoup de livres de ce couvent en Russie, cles